e-Learning Policy in Ireland

This article begins with a short piece on the Irish second-level (high-school) education system, to assist readers from abroad in understanding how we go about things here!

I invite comment, correction, comparison, criticism, conversation or any random thoughts that relate to the topic.

You do not need to be registered with edublogs to reply.


O’ Mahony, D. 2009. e-Learning policy in second-level education in the Republic of Ireland. [Online]. Available from: http://donalomahony.edublogs.org/elearning-policy-in-ireland/ [Access Date].
Creative Commons License
e-Learning Policy in Ireland by Donal O’ Mahony is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License.

1.0   Information and Communications Technology (ICT) policy in second-level education in Ireland

The Report of the Minister of Education’s Strategy Group in 2008 looks forward to a time when

… Irish schools reach a point where ICT becomes a seamless component of the education experience and where ICT-fluent teachers feel supported and adequately resourced in its use (DES 2008a p13).

It is my intention to examine how ICT policy in relation to teaching and learning in second-level education has developed in Ireland.



1.1 Second level education in Ireland


Students spend five or six years in second-level education in the Republic of Ireland, with the school-leaving age set at sixteen years of age or the completion of the first three years of secondary education.  The majority of students (82%) continue to complete school at approximately eighteen years of age (Forfás 2009).

The first three years of second-level education culminates in the Junior Certificate Examination. There is also the Junior Certificate School Programme (JCSP) which targets a small group of students who find education challenging and aims to keep them in the school system during the years of compulsory education.

Students then take two or three years to complete the Leaving Certificate programme. The first year of the Leaving Certificate programme, Transition Year, is optional, though many students chose to complete it.

Students sit on average seven subjects for the Established Leaving Certificate examination the results of which, in turn, are used by employers, training agencies, universities and others, as a criterion of academic ability and / or qualification for employment.

The Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme may be added to the Established Leaving Certificate programme. It is concerned with the world-of -work and enterprise-education and contains link-modules to the existing programme.

There is also the Leaving Certificate Applied Programme which is available to students who wish to follow a practical programme with a strong vocational emphasis. This is a distinct programme with its own assessment criteria, involving a system of continual assessment and terminal examinations.

1.2 The development of ICT policy in second-level education in Ireland

In writing up this I was challenged by the amount of crossover

  • between different ICT initiatives
  • between different stakeholders
  • between historical legacies that have been left continue, some of which are now recognised as to having served their time.

I will divide the discussion into a number of areas

  • ICT as a discrete / stand alone subject in the Irish education system
  • ICT as integrated across all subjects in the Irish education system
  • ICT policy in 2009
  • Reflection on my reading


1.3 ICT as a discrete / stand alone subject in the Irish education system

In the 1970’s and 1980’s it was very much left to motivated teachers as to what happened in individual schools regarding the nascent interest in the use of computers in education.  The Computer Education Society of Ireland (CESI) was founded in January 1973. Its initial concern was teacher education and the introduction of computer studies into the school curriculum in the Republic of Ireland.

CESI made submissions to the Department of Education and the then Curriculum and Examinations Board (forerunner of the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment) during the 1970’s and was invited to its first formal meeting with the Department in 1979. CESI was then made aware of the Department’s plans for computer studies in education.

Computer Studies was to be introduced as a module as part of Leaving Certificate Mathematics in 1980. This was at variance with CESI’s view at the time, that that computer studies and mathematics should not be linked (Oldham 2008). The student’s work in this new module was not examinable but was certified by the Department of Education. Computer Studies was subsequently introduced into the Junior Certificate in 1985. The students work in this case was also not examinable, but neither was it certified.

This situation continues with 5,419 students in the school-year 2005/6 receiving a statement of satisfactory completion of a course on Computer Studies from the Department of Education and Science (DES). That represented 11% of Leaving Certificate students that year. An example of some of the topics students are asked to study, is found in The Rules and Programme for Secondary Schools (DES 1999), for example, types of input and output devices, one low level language such as CECIL and one high level language such as COMAL.

The syllabus for this optional subject (as found in the Rules and Programmes for Secondary Schools) is considered outdated and the Inspectorate recommends

Given the outdated nature of the syllabuses, the relatively low numbers of schools availing of the subject, and the dynamism of schools in devising and organising their own ICT curricular programmes, consideration now needs to be given to either removing these syllabuses from the Rules and Programmes of SecondarySchools or reviewing them (DES 2008b p152).

The NCCA commissioned research by the University of Limerick (O’ Doherty et al 2000, O’ Doherty et al 2001), to consider a discrete or stand-alone computer based subject, for the Established Leaving Certificate. This was rejected.

The principal reasons for nor proceeding with the development of a discrete Leaving Certificate Subject were concerned with the inequalities likely to emanate from such a decision. Committees agreed that equity of access for all students would be compromised, as a discrete subject, would of, necessity be optional (DES 2008b p11)

There is a formal ICT module in the Leaving Certificate Applied Programme compulsory for all students with a further optional vocational specialism. These are both examinable modules. The Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme also has an ICT programme where students must use ICT to develop a portfolio of their work. The Inspectorate speaks highly of both these programmes (DES 2008b).

Most schools also provide some formal time-tabled classes in ICT. At Junior Certificate level, ICT classes are often provided, usually in the computer room, teaching basic skills, timetabled for one class-period per week. The only exception is in the Junior Certificate Schools Programme where there is a module called Information Technology, with six defined areas of ICT to be taught (JCSP 2007). Transition Year provides many flexible opportunities for formal courses in ICT, some designed by the school itself and some by external providers retained by the school, for example, the European Computer Driving Licence. These are provided on the initiative of the particular school and while encouraged by the Department of Education and Science, they are not prescribed.

The Inspectorate found

When developing ICT courses, schools should take account of students’ previous ICT knowledge and skills, with a view to expanding and consolidating their repertoire of skills. This entails tracking the development of their ICT skills through their post-primary schooling and planning the content of dedicated ICT lessons accordingly. Little emphasis is placed on more complicated ICT tasks during students’ experience of ICT in their classrooms (DES 2008b p148).

1.4               ICT as a cross-curricular activity in the Irish Education System

The discussion above traces some of the positions taken in regard to ICT as a discrete or stand alone subject, parts of which have stood the test of time, others of which are outmoded or needing significant revision.

Another option is to accept that ICT is a cross-curricular activity that should not be limited to a number of class-periods per week or to a particular module. The report to the NCCA by the University of Limerick (O’ Doherty et al 2001), highlights the lack of integration of ICT with teaching and learning and points to a separate approach that was developing in Ireland at the time.

The lack of integration of ICT in teaching and learning led to the launch of the Schools IT 2000 initiative in 1997 (DES, 1997).This initiative aimed to ensure that all students achieve computer literacy and that teachers are supported in developing and renewing skills that enable them to integrate ICT in the learning environment This emphasis on the integration of ICT in teaching and learning across the curriculum represents a marked shift from the dominant type of computer use within schools (O’ Doherty et al 2001 p5).

Schools IT 2000 – a Policy Framework for the New Millennium was published in 1997 as the first major policy document on ICT in Irish Education. The ICT in Schools Programme came from this, with the establishment of the National Centre for Technology in Education (1998) in order to implement it. Various key initiatives were undertaken that still continue as active projects

  • the technology integration initiative
  • the teaching skills initiative
  • the schools integration project
  • the establishment of Scoilnet
  • the appointment of ICT advisers.

The National Policy Advisory and Development Committee (NPADC) was also set up at the same time to report on the implementation of School’s IT 2000. The NPADC did so in 2001 with the publication of The Impact of Schools IT2000.

This report was immediately followed by the Blueprint for the future of ICT in Irish Education, Three Year Strategic Action Plan 2001 – 2003. The Blueprint committed €107.92 million to ICT in education and required schools to develop their ICT Plan to enable then to draw down funding. It was at this stage that the NCTE published and sent their ICT Planning and Advice for Schools handbook (2002) to schools.

This handbook contained the ICT planning matrix which allowed schools to analyze themselves at three levels (initial, intermediate, advanced) under five headings: management and planning, ICT and the curriculum, staff professional development, school ICT culture and ICT resources and infrastructure.

As these initiatives were being implemented, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) produced a report entitled Schooling for Tomorrow: Learning to Change: ICT in Schools in 2001, while the Information Society Commission, an initiative of the Department of the Taoiseach began research on learning, as Ireland entered the twenty-first century, publishing reports in 2002, 2004 and 2005.  The European Union was promoting eEurope since 1999 and was planning an initiative ‘Towards a knowledge-based Europe’ between 2003 and 2005 to culminate with Europe as “the most competitive knowledge based society in the world in 2010” (European Union 2003). Forfás, Ireland’s national policy advisory body for enterprise and science, was publishing research on Ireland’s future skills needs, in its National Skills Bulletins, the first of which was issued in 2005.

These reports served to move forward the development of ICT infrastructure in Ireland with the Schools Broadband Programme (2005-2009) and the NCTE’s infrastructural census of ICT in schools (2005/2006). This is reflected in the Department of Education and Science’s Statement of Strategy for 2005 – 2007

...we will continue to devise policy on the integration of ICT into learning, teaching and assessment procedures, including the development of school ICT infrastructure and the provision of software and multimedia resources in support of learning (2004 p36).

In the Education Act of 1998, the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) was given legal responsibility for curriculum in early childhood education, and in primary and post-primary schools.

The NCCA set up their ICT Steering Committee in 1998 to look at ICT policy and provision in Irish schools. It produced a number of policy reports, four of the most important being the two reports  from the University of Limerick on Computer Studies as a discrete / stand alone subject (2000/2001), Curriculum Assessment and ICT in the Irish Context: a discussion Paper (2004) and the ICT Framework A structured approach to ICT in Curriculum and Assessment Revised Framework (2007).

The NCCA are concerned with the pedagogical use of ICT across all subject areas. They summarise the benefits for students and teachers as: active involvement in learning, development of higher order thinking skills, learning in authentic environments, interest and engagement in learning, differentiated learning, collaborative learning, assessment of and for learning (NCCA 2007).

The NCCA have developed an ICT Framework in order to implement these benefits. It covers ICT learning opportunities over the years of compulsory education in the Republic of Ireland and divides these years into three levels: Junior Infants to Second Class, Third Class to Sixth Class, First Year to Third Year. The ICT learning opportunities are then grouped into four areas of learning, further subdivided into particular learning outcomes. The four areas of learning are

  • Creating, Communicating and Collaborating
  • Developing foundational knowledge, skills and concepts
  • Thinking critically and creatively
  • Understanding the social and personal impact of ICT

It should be noted that the NCCA’s framework takes students to Junior Certificate only.

The NCCA is still influential at Leaving Certificate level, as various subject syllabi are revised. In the Oireachtas Joint Committee on Education and Science a representative of the  Department of Education and Science,  ICT Policy Unit,  stated that “…the NCCA undertakes an ICT proofing exercise to establish the role of ICT as a teaching and learning tool…”‘(McGarry 2009). This has been evident in the relatively recent revisions of the Leaving Certificate History (2003), Geography (2004) and in particular Design and Communications Graphics Syllabus (2007) syllabi.

As the NCCA framework was being prepared in 2007, the National Development Plan 2007 – 2013 was published. It contained a section entitled ICT in Schools Sub-Programme that promised €252 million for ICT in schools over the period of the plan. It specifically required the development of an “…e-Learning culture” and “an eLearning strategy for the school as an integral part of the whole school planning and development.” (Department of Finance 2007 p200).

The then Minister for Education and Science, Mary Hannifin TD, announced the appointment of a Strategy Group to advise on the then planned investment of €252 million in ICT for schools. Their report was published in June 2008 as Investing Effectively in Information and Communications Technology in Schools, 2008 – 2013 (DES 2008a). It coincided with a report from the Inspectorate of the Department of Education and Science entitled ICT in Schools (DES 2008b). Both reports give a clear indication of the direction ICT in education in Ireland will take.

Part of this indication is continued investment in a robust ICT infrastructure but an increasing amount of emphasis is on the need to integrate ICT into teaching and learning. The Inspectorate conclude in their advice to policy-makers that

Teachers should exploit the potential of ICT to develop as wide a range of students’ skills as possible, including the higher order skills of problem-solving, synthesis, analysis and evaluation (DES 2008b).

Similarly one of the recommendations of the strategy group is to

Disseminate models and case studies of good practice on ICT integration in learning and teaching (DES 2008a).

In order to practically meet these needs the NCTE has drawn up a new in-service course for ICT co-ordinating teachers entitled Developing an eLearning Plan (NCTE 2008). The NCCA’s framework is part of this course content. They have also published an e-Learning road map (NCTE 2008) allowing schools to analyze themselves at four levels (initial, e-Enabled, e-Confident and e-Mature) under five headings: ICT Infrastructure, eLearning Culture, Professional Development, ICT in the Curriculum and Leadership and Planning. They are about to publish a new ICT handbook.


1.5 ICT Policy in 2009

The recession of 2009 has seen a further emphasis on the knowledge economy as the future of Ireland’s economic well being. The knowledge economy is defined as

…an economy in which the generation and the exploitation of knowledge has come to play the predominant part in the creation of wealth (Accenture 2004 p3).

The Statement on Education and Training from Forfás and the National Competiveness Council calls for the €272 million investment, in ICT in schools, committed in the National Development Plan, to be provided despite “the  current funding impasse” (2009 p6).

While a knowledge economy requires the teaching of basic ICT skills, the requirement to use knowledge creatively requires innovation on the part of students and teachers.

Knowledge must now be viewed through the lens of technologies that allow online collaboration and digital creativity. As the Report of the Minister’s Strategy Group says

Facilitated by cheaper computing devices and the use of Web 2.0 features, students are acquiring new interactive learning skills. The challenge for schools everywhere is to find appropriate and structured ways to incorporate these skills and students’ technologies into mainstream learning (2008a p8).

The backbone in schools for allowing the development of these new digital-media and online learning skills is broadband. The Schools Broadband Access Report Evaluation Programme (2009) confirms this, as it recommends

...that the Department undertake a detailed review of emerging educational requirements and policies and how these will translate into applications and hence into broadband network requirements (2009 p.15 my emphasis).

The Ministers Strategy Group states that “Students must be encouraged…to present their knowledge through multi-media presentations and digital video” (2008a p12 my emphasis).

These emerging educational requirements must focus on how we can best help students use knowledge creatively and in a way that is engaging for them.


1.6 Reflection on Policy issues

Certain aspects of ICT policy in second-level education in Ireland will remain constant and key to its success

These are

  • a confidence that integrating ICT across the curriculum will benefit teaching and learning
  • continued financial support, based on teacher and learner centered research, as to good e-Learning / digital-media practice in schools
  • a constantly updated and robust infrastructure that looks forward to emerging educational needs
  • training and the continuous professional development of teachers
  • management support, that encourages teachers to innovate

In making the decision to adopt a cross-curricular approach to ICT in secondary education, Ireland is accepting a challenge to be creative.

Traditional ICT skills are necessary across all subject areas but equally if students are to be encouraged to be original, they will require encouragement with what are called Web 2.0 technologies. This is particularly referred to in the Report of the Minister’s Strategy Group (2008a).

The latter is a particular challenge, because much of what is happening in Irish schools is in relation to ICT and word-processing, spreadsheets, internet-search etc. These are necessary and must be taught. Teaching some of these may be called the teaching the basic literacies but perhaps also it is teaching the old literacies?

But what of Web 2.0 – exactly what are the new literacies?  Websites? Blogs? Wikis? Podcasts? Digital video? On-line class-subject discussion groups? Who defines them? Who teaches them?  Where are they thought? How are they assessed? Have we the capability to teach them in every school?

Is the ultimate driver to be found under a heading entitled Realising ICT integration and e-learning in the report of the Ministers Strategy Group (2008a). It states

ICT should be used seamlessly within the curriculum at both primary and post-primary. Students must be encouraged to use technology in a multi-faceted way, to research and reinforce their subjects, to present their knowledge through multimedia presentations and digital video and, finally, to submit personal project work for official assessment as part of state examinations (2008a p12 my emphasis).

Will it take a change in the examination system to determine the integration of e-Learning into the Irish educational system?

Creative Commons License
e-Learning Policy in Ireland by Donal O’ Mahony is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License.


Accenture and the Irish Internet Association 2004. ICT -the Indispensable Sector in the Knowledge Based Economy. Dublin: ICT Ireland.

Department of Education 1997. Schools IT2000: A Policy Framework for the New Millennium. Dublin: The Stationery Office.

Department of Education and Science 1999. Rules and Programme for Secondary Schools. Dublin: The Stationery Office.

Department of Education and Science 2001. Blueprint for the Future of ICT in Irish Education Three Year Strategic Action Plan 2001 – 2003. Dublin: The Stationery Office.

Department of Education and Science 2004.  Statement of Strategy 2005 – 2007. [Online]. Available from: < http://www.education.ie/servlet/blobservlet/strategy_statement_05_07.pdf  > [Accessed 26 November 2006].

Department of Education and Science 2007. JCSP Information Technology [Online]. Available from < http://jcsp.slss.ie/information_technology.html> [Accessed 6 June 2009].

Department of Education and Science 2008a. Investing Effectively in Information and Technology in Schools 2008-2013. Dublin: Department of Education and Science.

Department of Education and Science 2008b. ICT in Schools Inspectorate Evaluation Studies. Dublin: Evaluation Support and Research Unit.

Department of Education and Science 2009. Schools Broadband Programme Evaluation Report. [Online]. Available from: <http://www.education.ie/servlet/blobservlet/schools_broadband_programme_evaluation_report.pdf?language=EN> [Accessed 4 June 2009].

Department of Finance, Sectoral Policy Division 2007. National Development Plan 2007 – 2013 Transforming Ireland. Dublin: The Stationery Office.

European Commission 2003. Towards a knowledge-based Europe. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Forfás 2005. National Skills Bulletin 2005. Dublin: Forfás.

Forfás and the National Competitiveness Council 2009. Statement on Education and Training. Dublin: Forfás.

Information Society Commission 2002. Building the knowledge society: report for Government. Dublin: Department of the Taoiseach.

Information Society Commission 2004. Current perspectives on the information society: revisiting the future. Dublin: Department of the Taoiseach.

Information Society Commission 2005. Learning in the 21st century : towards personalisation. Dublin: Department of the Taoiseach.

McGarry, Mary 2009. Joint Committee on Education and Science: Knowledge Society and ICT Teaching Standards: Discussion with Department of Education and Science [Online].  Available from:<   http://debates.oireachtas.ie/DDebate.aspx?F=EDJ20090326.xml&Page=1&Ex=13#N13 >  [Accessed 9 June 2009].

National Centre for Technology in Education 2002. ICT Planning and Advice for Schools. Dublin: National Centre for Technology in Education.

National Centre for Technology in Education. 2006. NCTE 2005 Census on ICT Infrastructure in Schools. [Online]. Available from:                                                       <http://www.ncte.ie/NCTEInitiatives/TechnologyIntegrationInitiative/Census/Census2005/> [ Accessed 26th October 2006].

National Centre for Technology in Education. 2008. Developing an eLearning Plan. [Online]. Available from: <http://www.ncte.ie/courses/DevelopinganeLearningPLan/> [Accessed June 4 2009].

National Council for Curriculum and Assessment 2004. Curriculum Assessment and ICT in the Irish Context: A Discussion Paper. [Online]. Available from:                      < http://www.ncca.ie/index.asp?locID=62&docID=-1> [Accessed 10 October 2006].

National Council for Curriculum and Assessment 2007. ICT Framework A structured approach to ICT in Curriculum and Assessment Revised Framework [Online]. Available from <http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/publications/ict%20revised%20framework.pdf > [Accessed 6 June 2009].

National Policy Advisory and Development Committee 2001. The Impact of Schools IT 2000. Dublin: National Policy Advisory and Development Committee.

O’Doherty, T., Gleeson, J., Moody, J., Johnson, K., Kiely, L., & McGarr, O. 2000. An Investigation into the Interest in and Feasibility of Introducing a Computer-based Subject to the Established Leaving Certificate Programme. Dublin: National Council for Curriculum and Assessment.

O’Doherty, T., Gleeson, J., Johnson, K., McGarr, O., & Moody, J. 2001. Computers and Curriculum -Difficulties and Dichotomies. Dublin: National Council for Curriculum and Assessment.

OECD 2001. Learning to Change: ICT in Schools. Paris: OECD

Oldham, E. 2008. History So Far – Recollections of a Founder Member [Online]. Available from:< http://www.cesi.ie/history> [Accesses 4 June 2009].

Prensky, M. 2001. Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. [Online]. Available from:< http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf> [Accessed 8 December 2006].

Creative Commons License
e-Learning Policy in Ireland by Donal O’ Mahony is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License.

Posted in


  1. Tommaso Napoli

    Dear Prof. Mahony,
    as you know from May 1st to October 31st, 2015 Milan will host the Universal Exposition, around the theme: Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life.
    We invite you to visit the international portal TOGETHER IN EXPO 2015, promoted by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, which is addressed to all Italian and foreign schools, to make them all protagonists of EXPO Milano 2015.
    A digital space, featuring educational materials, contributions, storytellings developed around the thematic routes of EXPO Milano 2015. A place to engage students in digital challenges.
    Discover our MISSIONS, to ensure that, through games, quizzes, activity inspirations and our CONTEST, they will overcome boundaries and differences and draw together a sustainable food culture, in the sign of EXPO Milano 2015, to be shared and spread, through their direct testimony.
    We kindly ask you to please spread the message of the initiative among your blog, staff and schools, inviting them to browse the website and to participate, by simply filling the REGISTRATION FORM, so to be involved in the initiative.
    TOGETHER IN EXPO 2015 constitutes an excellent opportunity to exchange views and ideas on the issues of sustainable, supportive and fair food; to establish and renew relationships with schools in other countries; to map and understand experiences and good practices, sharing them with faculty and students from all around the world.

    TOGETHER IN EXPO 2015 Coordination Centre
    For information, inquiries, reports: info@togetherinexpo2015.it
    Toll Free Number (from Italy): 800.11.77.60
    Skype: togetherinexpo2015

  2. Noel

    I created a web site help student/people remember more effectively. I would like to get feedback from some secondary school teachers and students. If you get a chance I would be interested in what you think.
    Noel O’Hara Phd

  3. Donal O Mahony

    Thanks Peter!

    We were recently part of a pilot Management, Leadership and Learning Inspection in our school. In fairness two of the inspectors listened to a 30 minute presentation I gave on Moodle and things digital that teachers and students are doing in our school. I got the impression though that eLearning as opposed to aspects of eTeaching (using a dataprojector) did not fit into the schema used for Inspection.

    I envisage e.g. in my own subject history that creation of a digital historical artifact with a written brief supporting its production and critiquing the processes involved.

  4. Peter Lydon

    The last point is interesting…’that students should be able to submit personal project work…as part of exams’…I bet no one has asked the SEC what they think of this!

  5. Donal O' Mahony

    Sometimes you miss things – Leaving Certificate Music has an optional Music Technology component.

    I revisited the ICT in Schools, Inspectorate Evaluation Studies report published in 2008 and found only one mention of it, in a reference to a survey of Principals and how they saw ICT used in their schools.

    It is completed in our school and is very straightforward according to one of the music teachers. The following link will take you to the assessment component and its content.

    I am told (but can’t confirm by way of publication) that the content has not changed since 2005.


  6. Donal O' Mahony

    This chapter should also be read in any discussion of ICT policy in Ireland:

    Conway, P.F. and Brennan-Freeman, E. 2009. National Policies and Practices on ICT in Education IN: Plomp, T. Anderson, R. E. Law, N. and Quale, A. Cross-National Information and Communication Technology. Revised 2nd. ed.Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.

    It is referenced in my blog here


  7. Donal O' Mahony

    I have just reviewed another report which should be considered in any review of ICT Policy in Ireland.

    It is entitled Value for Money Review of the ICT Support Service for Schools and was published in June 2008. It beings clarity to the policy structures relating to ICT in education in Ireland. The diagram on (pXV) is useful.

    The review also places ICT in Irish Secondary education within a European context and cites the report The ICT Impact Report: A review of studies of ICT impact on schools in Europe (2006).

    One of the review’s comments is worth considering “The successful integration of ICT within the schools system is still in its infancy” (2008 p120).

    Department of Education and Science 2008. Value for Money Review of the ICT Support Service for Schools [Online]. Available from< http://www.education.ie/servlet/blobservlet/vfm_review_ict_schools.doc?language=EN> Accessed 16 June 2009.

    European Schoolnet 2006. The ICT Impact Report: A review of studies of ICT impact on schools in Europe [Online]. Available from < http://ec.europa.eu/education/pdf/doc254_en.pdf >Accessed 16 June 2009.

Post a comment

You may use the following HTML:
<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>